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When Inspiration Turns to Infringement: The Cattelan vs. James Controversy

The art world thrives on originality, but where does inspiration end and infringement begin? 

This question became a focal point recently with the unveiling of remarkably similar artworks by renowned artists, Maurizio Cattelan and Anthony James. 

The Artworks at Issue


Anthony James
Installation view of "Anthony James: Divine Infinity," 2022. Courtesy of Opera Gallery, New York.

At the heart of the controversy lie two large, reflective metal panels: Anthony James' "Bullet Paintings" featuring gleaming stainless steel pockmarked with bullet holes, and Maurizio Cattelan's "Sunday," a gold panel similarly marred by gunfire. 


Maurizio Cattelan
MAURIZIO CATTELAN, 2024, installation view © Maurizio Cattelan Photo: Maris Hutchinson Courtesy Gagosian


The striking resemblance sparked accusations of copyright infringement from Anthony James, who has been creating his "Bullet Paintings" for over a decade.


James' lawyer, Scott Allan Burroughs, sent a letter alleging copyright infringement, highlighting the undeniable visual similarities and requesting an explanation of Maurizio Cattelan's creative process behind "Sunday." Cattelan, however, expressed surprise, while his curator, Francesco Bonami, argued that the distinct meanings behind each artwork rendered the similarities inconsequential.


This case hinges on the crucial distinction between copyrightable expression and non-copyrightable ideas.  As Attorney Sergio Muñoz Sarmiento points out, concepts cannot be copyrighted, but the way those concepts are expressed can be.  Anthony James' exhibition history in major art capitals strengthens his claim that Maurizio Cattelan might have been aware of his work, potentially influencing "Sunday" in a way that transgresses the boundaries of permissible inspiration.


This isn't Cattelan's first brush with copyright accusations. He previously defended himself against a claim regarding his "Comedian" artwork, featuring a banana duct-taped to a wall.  The Cattelan vs. James case, therefore, becomes even more intriguing, as past controversies become relevant to the current evaluation of originality.


While the legal battle continues, James seeks an amicable resolution through direct dialogue with Cattelan. His primary concern lies in the potential harm Cattelan's "Sunday" might cause to the market value and artistic identity of his established "Bullet Paintings."


The Cattelan vs. James case transcends a mere copyright dispute.

It ignites a crucial discourse on the very essence of artistic creation in the 21st century. We are forced to grapple with the nuanced interplay between inspiration and appropriation – a dance as old as art itself. This case compels us to define the delicate line where homage becomes a derivative act, potentially stifling artistic evolution. Ultimately, the verdict will not only determine the fate of these two artists, but also set a legal precedent for the ever-evolving boundaries of originality in contemporary art.


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